Resources

Acoustic resources

The Lab is equipped with a sound-proof recording room and state-of-the-art recorders and microphones. All the computers in the Lab (Macs and PCs) have Praat for acoustic analysis.

Articulatory resources

Apart from audio recording equipment, the Lab also has machines for the acquisition of articulatory data.

Ultrasound tongue imaging

Ultrasound tongue imaging (UTI) is a technique which captures dynamic tongue contours using ultrasonography.  It is a non-invasive technique and it produces real-time data of tongue gestures.  Ultrasound tongue imaging is useful for collecting static articulatory information about vocalic and consonant gestures. A dynamic analysis of the gestures is also possible, such as the assessment of tongue displacement and velocity through time.

The lab has recently acquired a Telemed Echo Blaster 128 unit, paired with a 20mm transducer, which allows acquisition at a frame rate of 65 frames per second.

Electroglottography

Electroglottography (EGG) measures the amount of contact between the vocal folds during phonation (Vocal Folds Contact Area, VFCA). The lab has a Laryngograph and a Glottal Enterprises EGG unit. From EGG data is possible to extract, among other things, exact information on fundamental frequency (F0) and voice quality.

Electropalatography

Electropalatography (EPG) is an articulatory imaging technique that records contact between the tongue and the palate during speech. Articulate palates have 64 electrodes (in 8 rows) which are exposed to the lingual surface. The electrodes on the palate are connected to an electronics unit, which collect data from the palate when contact occurs between the tongue surface and any of the electrodes.

EPG provides dynamic real-time visual feedback of the location and timing of tongue contacts with the hard palate, and it gives insights on how consonantal gestures are achieved.

Aerodynamics

The lab has a PCquirer unit which can measure the airflow and air pressure during speech. The airflow machine can record the pressure and the volume of the air escaping from the the mouth and from the nose. Such technique allows a quantitative investigation of nasality.